linux basic useful commands

Environment Control – Command Description

cd d — Change to directory d

mkdir d — Create new directory d

rmdir d — Remove directory d

mv f1 [f2…] d — Move file f to directory d

mv d1 d2 — Rename directory d1 as d2

passwd — Change password

alias name1 name2 — Create command alias

unalias name1 — Remove command alias name1

rlogin nd — Login to remote node

logout — End terminal session

setenv name v — Set env var to value v

unsetenv name1 name2…] — remove environment variable

Output, Communication, & Help — Command Description

lpr ñP printer f — Output file f to line printer

script [f] — Save terminal session to f

exit — Stop saving terminal session

mail username — Send mail to user

biff [y/n] — Instant notification of mail

man name — UNIX manual entry for name

learn — Online tutorial

Process Control Command — Description

Ctrl/c * — Interrupt processes

Ctrl/s * — Stop screen scrolling

Ctrl/q * — Resume screen output

sleep n — Sleep for n seconds

jobs — Print list of jobs

kill [%n] — Kill job n

ps — Print process status stats

kill -9 n — Remove process n

Ctrl/z * — Suspend current process

stop %n — Suspend background job n

command& Run — command in background

bg [%n] — Resume background job n

fg [%n] — Resume foreground job n

exit — Exit from shell

Environment Status Command — Description

ls [d] [f…] — List files in directory

ls -1 [f…] — List files in detail

alias [name] — Display command aliases

printenv [name] — Print environment values

quota Display — disk quota

date — Print date & time

who — List logged in users

whoami — Display current user

finger [username] — Output user information

chfn — Change finger information

pwd — Print working directory

history — Display recent commands

! n — Submit recent command n

File Manipulation Command — Description

vi [f] — Vi fullscreen editor

emacs [f] — Emacs fullscreen editor

ed [f] — Text editor

wc f — Line, word, & char count

cat f — List contents of file

more f — List file contents by screen

cat f1 f2 > f3 — Concatenates f1 & f2 into f3

chmod mode f — Change protection mode of f

cmp f1 f2 — Compare two files

cp f1 f2 — Copy file f1 into f2

sort f — Alphabetically sort f

split [-n] f – Split f into n-line pieces

mv f1 f2 — Rename file f1 as f2

rm f — Delete (remove) file f

grep ëptní f — Outputs lines that match ptn

diff f1 f2 — Lists file differences

head f — Output beginning of f

tail f — Output end of f

Compiler Command — Description

cc [-o f1] f2 — C compiler

lint f — Check C code for errors

f77 [-o f1] f2 — Fortran77 compiler

pc [-o f1] f2 — Pascal compiler

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